The fundamental relationship between voltage, current and resistance in an electrical circuit is called Ohm’s Law. All materials are made up from atoms, and all atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons, have a positive electrical charge. Neutrons have no electrical charge while Electrons, have a negative electrical charge. Atoms are bound together by powerful forces of attraction existing between the atoms nucleus and the electrons in its outer shell.
Voltage, ( V ) is the potential energy of an electrical supply stored in the form of an electrical charge. Voltage can be thought of as the force that pushes electrons through a conductor and the greater the voltage the greater is its ability to “push” the electrons through a given circuit. As energy has the ability to do work this potential energy can be described as the work required in joules to move electrons in the form of an electrical current around a circuit from one point or node to another.
Then the difference in voltage between any two points, connections or junctions (called nodes) in a circuit is known as the Potential Difference, ( p.d. ) sometimes called the Voltage Drop.
The Potential difference between two points is measured in Volts with the circuit symbol V, or lowercase “v“, although Energy, E lowercase “e” is sometimes used. Then the greater the voltage, the greater is the pressure (or pushing force) and the greater is the capacity to do work.
A constant voltage source is called a DC Voltage with a voltage that varies periodically with time is called an AC voltage. Voltage is measured in volts, with one volt being defined as the electrical pressure required to force an electrical current of one ampere through a resistance of one Ohm. Voltages are generally expressed in Volts with prefixes used to denote sub-multiples of the voltage such as microvolts ( μV = 10-6 V ), millivolts ( mV = 10-3 V ) or kilovolts ( kV = 103 V ). Voltage can be either positive or negative.
Batteries or power supplies are mostly used to produce a steady D.C. (direct current) voltage source such as 5v, 12v, 24v etc in electronic circuits and systems. While A.C. (alternating current) voltage sources are available for domestic house and industrial power and lighting as well as power transmission. The mains voltage supply in the United Kingdom is currently 230 volts a.c. and 110 volts a.c. in the USA.
General electronic circuits operate on low voltage DC battery supplies of between 1.5V and 24V d.c. The circuit symbol for a constant voltage source usually given as a battery symbol with a positive, + and negative, - sign indicating the direction of the polarity. The circuit symbol for an alternating voltage source is a circle with a sine wave inside.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in a plasma.
The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using a device called an ammeter.
Electric currents can have many effects, notably heating, but they also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators.
A flow of positive charges gives the same electric current, and has the same effect in a circuit, as an equal flow of negative charges in the opposite direction. Since current can be the flow of either positive or negative charges, or both, a convention for the direction of current which is independent of the type of charge carriers is needed. The direction of conventional current is arbitrarily defined to be the same as the direction of the flow of positive charges.
In metals, which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits, the positive charges are immobile, and the charge carriers are electrons. Because the electrons carry negative charge, their motion in a metal conductor is in the direction opposite to that of conventional current.
When analyzing electrical circuits, the actual direction of current through a specific circuit element is usually unknown. Consequently, each circuit element is assigned a current variable with an arbitrarily chosen reference direction. This is usually indicated on the circuit diagram with an arrow next to the current variable. When the circuit is solved, the circuit element currents may have positive or negative values. A negative value means that the actual direction of current through that circuit element is opposite that of the chosen reference direction. In electronic circuits, the reference current directions are often chosen so that all currents are toward ground. This often corresponds to conventional current direction, because in many circuits the power supply voltage is positive with respect to ground.
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